Politics & Law

More false attacks on what and how we teach at Berkeley

Mark Peterson

On Monday, May 7, the print edition of the Wall Street Journal carried another op-ed piece by Peter Berkowitz, of Stanford’s Hoover Institution, who in recent weeks has falsely accused the UC system of “indoctrinating” our students, including the remarkably foolish claim that  “on seven of the nine UC campuses, including Berkeley, a survey course in Western civilization is not even offered” (WSJ, March 30, 2012).  This would come as a great shock to my colleagues, who offer exactly this course, History 5, to hundreds of students every semester.

Berkowitz’s latest diatribe claims to explain “Why Colleges Don’t Teach the Federalist Papers.”  He names Berkeley, as well as Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Stanford, among the culprits.  This, too, came as a shock to one of the undergraduates in my course on the American Revolution, History 121B, as he had been required to read significant portions of The Federalist assigned in the course.  He clipped out the article and brought it to me just before the final exam.  Berkowitz’s op-ed piece can be found here:

http://www.hoover.org/news/daily-report/116621

Despite the broad-stroke smear suggested by the headline, Berkowitz’s essay narrows his target to law schools and political science departments, so perhaps he didn’t bother to check on Berkeley’s offerings in history.  Nevertheless, his understanding of the purpose, meaning, intentions, and context of The Federalist and its relationship to the US Constitution is so inaccurate, and so skewed to reflect presentist right-wing sentiments, as to be positively misleading.  So while my students took their final exam on Tuesday, I wrote the following letter to the editor of the Wall Street Journal, hoping to correct the record.  I have received no reply, and don’t expect my letter to appear in the Journal, but at least readers of this blog can get an accurate sense of what we teach, and how we teach it, at Berkeley.

To the editor:

Mr. Berkowitz confuses a political gloss on the Constitution with the Constitution itself.  (“Why Colleges Don’t Teach the Federalist Papers,” May 7, 2012).  My Berkeley students know better.  As I write these words, my undergraduates in the American Revolution course are taking their final exam, and their assigned reading has included major selections from The Federalist.

But unlike Mr. Berkowitz in his narrow view of the subject, my students also read major selections from equally prominent anti-Federalist arguments made during this critical time period.  They also read the best monograph on the subject, Pauline Maier’s, Ratification: The People Debate the Constitution, 1787-1788 (2010), and therefore they know something that Berkowitz chooses to ignore — that when it came to voting on ratification, the Constitution squeaked through by a narrow margin.  In two critical states, Virginia and New York, where Madison, Hamilton, and Jay published their Federalist arguments, ratification was approved by a margin of 13 votes out of the 225 cast — in New York the margin was three.  The Federalist was not the “single surest analysis of the problems that the Constitution was intended to solve and the manner in which it was intended to operate,” it was a collection of polemical arguments published in a few critical states, where supporters of its argument won the narrowest of political victories in favor of a radical expansion of national government.

Furthermore, Mr. Berkowitz, in his selective quotation of James Madison from Federalist 45, also glosses over the fact that Hamilton, Madison, and Jay were by no means consistent in their interpretation of the constitutional draft.  Yes, Madison in #45 claimed that the powers of the national government are “few and defined,” but he said so in answer to opponents of the constitution who feared the “Danger from the Powers of the Union to the State Governments.”  Virtually every one of the promises and predictions Madison made in #45 turned out to be wrong, and it was Madison himself, as Congressman and President, who later contradicted in his actions some of the arguments he made on paper as “Publius.”  Madison also strongly endorsed, in the very next paragraph of #45, the “new power” of “the regulation of commerce,” adding that it “seems to be an addition which few oppose, and from which no apprehensions are entertained.”

Meanwhile, for every time Madison describes the national government as limited, Hamilton describes it as “energetic,” and lauds its power to rectify the conditions of “national disorder” and “poverty” that were then plaguing the American “community so blessed with natural advantages as we are” (Federalist 15).  Hamilton was explaining the “insufficiency of the present confederation to preserve our union,” and therefore calling for a much stronger and more centralized government than the one that currently existed under the Articles.

In 2012, the United States faces problems of poverty and disorder far beyond anything lurking in 1787.  But Mr. Berkowitz would hamstring the will of the people through their national government to repair our national disorder, by virtue of a narrow, partial, and one-sided reading of a polemical argument.  Hamilton would be appalled, and so would the undergraduates in my course at Berkeley, who have read the arguments from both sides and know it in full.  It was, in fact, a student in the course who brought the clipping of Mr. Berkowitz’s essay to my attention, with the errors already underlined.

Mark Peterson

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Comments to "More false attacks on what and how we teach at Berkeley":
    • fredword

      Western civilization class ( history dept) I took was focused upon everything is Bush’s fault, and all white people (except Berkeley democrats) are racists. That was all that was taught!

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    • Mad Lib

      Mark: Please read my comment again. It was meant ironically, and was directed at the illogic of Berkowitz’s argument — that is, his (not my) contention that Berkeley fails to teach the Federalist, on the one hand, and does it badly on the other. I get that Berkeley does, in fact, teach the Federalist. Berkowitz is wrong.

      To sum up: Thanks for your post. And now, I’m off to watch “Annie Hall” again…

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    • Mad Lib:
      You seem to have missed the point of my entry. In fact, my course does require that students read The Federalist, and considers it to be extremely relevant — so relevant that I also require students to read the counterarguments published at the same time, and to follow closely the ratification debates and the votes that took place in every state, which is exactly what The Federalist was written in order to influence. To understand our history, we need to know these things in detail. In other words, you and Mr. Berkowitz are quite wrong about what and how we teach at Berkeley.

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    • Anon: I encourage you to rethink your statement. Simply because you graduated from Berkeley in engineering (when?) and took a few humanities courses does not mean that you “know what they teach,” any more than Peter Berkowitz does — he didn’t even bother to check our on-line course listings before making false claims. My point is twofold — first, that Berkowitz does not know what we teach, and second, that teaching “The Federalist Papers” is neither “left” nor “right.” The past is more complicated than simple-minded pundits like Berkowitz want it to be. Berkowitz would like to own the revealed truth of The Federalist and The Constitution for himself and his party, but that’s not what the making of the US Constitution was actually like. My class teaches students to think clearly about the whole process, in the full context of the times, by assigning Federalists and anti-Federalists, patriots and loyalists — the full panoply of argument in the making of the American Revolution.

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    • Mad Lib

      From Berkowitz’s WSJ op-ed:

      “Of course, The Federalist is not prohibited reading, so graduates of our leading universities might be reading it on their own. The bigger problem is that the progressive ideology that dominates our universities teaches that The Federalist, like all books written before the day before yesterday, is antiquated and irrelevant.”

      In other words, Berkeley, Harvard et al. are both (1) failing to teach the Federalist, and (2) doing it wrong.

      Berkowitz, it seems, has unearthed the dirty little secret of higher ed in America — it’s just like the Catskills. The food is terrible. And the portions are so small…

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    • Anon

      Please. I graduated from Berkeley. I know what they teach. While I was an engineer (it is hard but not impossible to bring politics into engineering), I did take a few humanities classes. Those classes varied from left, to lefter to leftist. What again is the Liberal to Conservative ratio for the faculty at UC Berkeley?

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    • Johnson

      I’m in the History Depart., and yes, WSJ is 100%. The U.C. History Dept., while ranked the best in history dept. for 8 out of 10 grad. evals ( US World News and Reports) it ranks as one of the lowest in all subjects ( except social) in American History. Please get your facts right.

      I was in an American cultures class, and we were to explain that whites were all racist and colored people never had a racist moment in all of history. Go pound sand — I want my money back!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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    • Richard M. Abrams

      Good for you, Mark. Nice job. My students in Hist.39, which I taught for 35 years, were required to read nearly all of The Federalist Papers every year. And clearly they came to know the work and its intellectual environment far better than the intellectually dishonest Mr.Berkowitz.

      I read the WSJ regularly, tho since Murdoch took it over its news division, once relatively independent, has been corrupted by the ideological garbage that had always oozed from its editorial pages, so I have decided I will switch to The Financial Times when my subscription runs out. It takes a masochist to handle that stuff any more.

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    • Thomas A Brady Jr

      For 20 years I taught Berkeley undergraduates in the course Professor Peterson refers to as History 5, which is the modern part of what in earlier days was called “Western Civilization.” Professor Berkowitz’s ignorant remark on the subject hardly deserves a comment, though it may well satisfy the Wall Street Journal’s standards of truth.

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    • David Moshfegh

      That was awesome Professor Peterson. Self-proclaimed conservatives insisting on convenient history is not a new phenomenon. But, now they seem also to be insisting on making what’s not convenient — that the Federalist Papers were actually touting federalism; what a radical thought! — convenient and then bashing everyone who doesn’t pay sufficient attention to their ‘foundational’ insight. Though I’m also not holding my breath, I hope the Journal does publish your letter and allow readers to judge for themselves.

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