Arts, Culture & Humanities

Virtuous voting

Claude Fischer

As the 2012 campaigns start to accelerate, they strive to motivate their supporters – to get them off their passive posteriors, get them to talk up the party candidates, and at least get them to vote. Political scientists and political practitioners have learned that American elections, with their abysmal turnouts, are typically won not by the side that does the best job of changing people’s minds, but by the side that does the best job of getting out its vote.

The problem of mobilizing one’s partisans raises a long-standing puzzle, the political scientists’ old chestnut: Why should anyone bother to vote, given that the chances of his or her single vote changing an election and that election in turn significantly changing the voter’s life is virtually zero?

washington

Washington portrait

The Founding Fathers stressed Civic Virtue — citizens of a Republic must put the common interest ahead of their own. George Washington’s return to public service as president serves as the classic example. Because the Fathers assumed that only men of property could be sufficiently educated, be sufficiently motivated by the public good rather than by private gain, and, unlike women, servants, apprentices, tenants, etc., be sufficiently independent to make their own choices, then only such men could attain Civic Virtue and therefore only such men should vote. Alas, they found out that even gentlemen often had corrupt interests, enough to corrupt voters.

An irony of our age is that, in effect, we expect everyone to exemplify Civic Virtue.

Noble voting

In an earlier post, I reviewed the ups and downs of voting turnout in America since about 1800. While much of that fluctuation resulted from cycles of widening and narrowing access to the ballot, much also reflected the extent to which voters had material self-interests at stake, such as patronage jobs, trading a vote for money, or tapping a keg on election day. “Good Government” reformers took much of the spoils out of voting by the early 1900s and voting turnout plunged. These “Goo-Goos,” as political scientists sarcastically termed them, had noble motives – they, too, appealed to Civic Virtue – but they also very much wanted to blunt the power of immigrants and the urban political machines that turned out the working class at the polls.

Much of the political conflict before and after the Revolution, which intensified as Andrew Jackson’s politics of the common man took hold, can be understood as mobilized workingmen’s insolence — their assertion that gentlemen, claims of Civic Virtue piety notwithstanding, were as self-interested as anyone (even Washington, at least in his campaigns of 1758 and 1761). If even the elites were self-interested, then average folk need give them no deference nor their claims to be stewards of the common good. And no shame ensued in demanding more jobs, cheaper credit, or larger army pensions. When 20th century political campaigns promise a “chicken in every pot,” lower gasoline prices, or a middle-class tax cut, they are baldly appealing to self-interest rather than Civic Virtue.

Yet the commentariat clucks and many of us worry about this. Much of the interest in a book such as Putnam’s Bowling Alone flows from the belief that we have lost a Civic Virtue we once had — the belief that people do not cast principled votes as they “used to”; that when they vote they don’t look to the common good as they “used to,” but to their own good. Such tsk-tsking is more nostalgia than history.

More striking to me is what seems to be an escalation in our expectations of voters: the notion that, even if we often fall short, all of us — men and women, white and non-, educated and un-, young and old, propertied and not — are expected to approach voting as an exercise of disinterested Civic Virtue.

And then we are disappointed.

Cross-posted from Claude Fischer’s blog, Made in America: Notes on American life from American history.

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Comments to "Virtuous voting":
    • Gerard Archambault

      Virtuous voting is a great thought provoking subject. I tend to vote for the candidates that want to stop global warming and push for protection of the natural environment. I would like to see more of Obama’s incentives to conserve fuel and push for alternative energy sources.
      I tend to view Obama as a virtuous president.

      [Report abuse]

    • James Kay

      Democracy is entirely dependent on an educated electorate and America has nothing remotely like that. (The rich are doing their best to keep it that way but not beacause they want to destroy the country.)

      We are all doomed!

      [Report abuse]

    • Anthony St. John

      2012 election rhetoric keeps proving we need much more:

      SKEPTICAL THINKING to analyze the truth of enormous amounts of information and misinformation on the internet.

      DISCUSSION to get at the truth, analyze the problems and expedite the implementation of corrective actions.

      CREATIVITY to produce solutions during the 2012 election cycle. We already know far to much about our political, economic and social problems and it is time to solve them ASAP using Internet People-to-People power at last.

      EDUCATION improvements to enable human nature to evolve to a level of universal intelligence that perpetuates instead of continuing to destroy quality of life.

      MORALITY to eliminate reasons for wars and poverty that have been destroying the human race since the beginning of civilization.

      WISDOM is desperately needed because all of our institutional leaders are producing too many failures that increasingly threaten everyone on earth.

      LEADERSHIP by Cal professors and scholars to take the lead in implementing solutions that will produce all the above.

      [Report abuse]

    • Emanuelle

      Fixed the statement for you Anthony:

      The totally unacceptable fact of life today is that our voting rights, property rights, and liberty have been under continuous, destructive attack during the 2012 election cycle, making it possible for a whole new era of tyranny by unrestricted union political spending and left-wing Super Pacs over all other American social and economic classes.

      [Report abuse]

    • Anthony St. John

      Prof. Fischer, the totally unacceptable fact of life today is that our voting, civil and women’s rights, education, the Rule of Law and public safety have been under continuous, destructive attack during the 2012 election cycle, making it possible for a whole new era of tyranny by the owners of radical right wing superPACs over all other American social and economic classes. We continue fail to learn the lessons of Ancient Athenian Democracy.

      If these attacks and the facts of history don’t motivate We The People to save our Democracy, what will? The power of money and the ability to fool far too many We The People are two of the greatest threats to American Democracy today as any time in history.

      What we really need is more PHILOSOPHERS who have learned and thought deeply about multidisciplinary social, political, economic, environmental and scientific problems, trained to provide leadership to implement solutions, that is if we can fix our destructive Us/Them political dichotomy first so that philosophers will be allowed to prevail. But this long-term solution will take a while and we need to implement solutions during the 2012 elections.

      As the great 20th century philosopher Will Durant concluded in his Lessons of History, history proves you may not be able to fool all the people all the time but you can fool enough people to rule a large nation.

      Do you have a better way to fight back Professor? We most certainly need to fight back most successfully during the 2012 elections, and now would be a very good time to implement your solution(s)?

      [Report abuse]

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