Arts, Culture & Humanities

Catholic schism

Claude Fischer

With the resignation of Pope Benedict and election of a new pope, amidst what seems an unending turmoil over sex abuse by priests, pollsters have understandably thought this a good moment to inquire about American Catholics’ attitudes on religious matters. The results describe a major disconnection between the Roman Catholic Church and its American adherents.

St. Peter's, NYC

St. Peter’s, NYC (source)

A New York Times survey conducted in February found, for example, that by roughly two to one or more, self-identified Catholics favored gay marriage, women priests, priests marrying, artificial means of birth control, access to abortion, and the death penalty – all anathema to the Church. Most said that the Church and its American bishops are “out of touch” with the needs of Catholics (although though most also said that parish priests are in touch).

The media are attending to the events and crises of the moment. It is important to understand that the alienation between the Church in Rome and Catholics in America has deep historical and cultural roots.

Earlier days

When Catholic immigrants starting arriving in the U.S. in great numbers in the 19th century, they were tightly connected to the Church and severely estranged from American Protestants. Tensions over religion and other cultural issues were so great that they often flared into violence. Protestants suspected Catholics of all sorts of depravities and of being far more loyal to the Vatican than to the nation.

In 1834, a mob burned down a convent in Massachusetts. In 1844, riots between Protestants and Irish Catholics in Philadelphia left thirty or more dead in the streets. The charge that the Democratic Party was too close to the Church – e.g., “rum, Romanism, and rebellion” – played an important role in American elections. The Church organized a vast set of parallel institutions in America – hospitals, newspapers, colleges, but most critically, parochial schools – to insulate Catholics from the influences of American Protestantism.

Yet, the forces of assimilation were strong. The demand, for example, for more democracy in parishes forced accommodations early on.[1] “Free thinking” American Catholics irritated Rome, such that in the 1890s, Pope Leo condemned “Americanism” – “the assumed right to hold whatever opinions one pleases upon any subject and to set them forth in print to the world.”[2]

Fundamentally, the Church encountered the great contradiction that other Old World faiths as well, notably Judaism, encountered in America: Religion rooted in a community defined by birth and regulated by authorities confronted religion based on individual choice in a  faith “market” of voluntary congregations.

Thus, 78 percent of American Catholics asked by the Times poll, “On difficult moral questions, which are you more likely to follow – the teachings of the Pope, or your conscience?,” picked “conscience” — a few points more than they did when Benedict began his papacy.[3] American voluntarism triumphant.

These days

In the latter half of the 20th century, especially since the 1960s, the voluntaristic rebellion against the Church accelerated. The reforms deriving from the Second Vatican Council in the early 1960s stirred passions and faster change. For example, the American priests and bishops tacitly yielded to their parishioners’ demands for greater freedom to divorce.[4]

But accommodations have not kept up with the laity’s desires and the Church has been losing many adherents to other religions or to no religion at all and also losing enthusiasm among those who still remain Catholic.

In the 1970s, 13 percent of Americans aged 30-plus who had been raised as Catholics no longer declared themselves to be Catholics. In comparison, 8 percent of Americans aged 30-plus who had been raised as Protestants no longer declared themselves to be Protestant.

In the last decade, however, 28 percent of thirty-plus raised-Catholics no longer claimed to be Catholics versus 18 percent of raised-Protestants who no longer claimed to be Protestants, widening the Catholic disadvantage in dropouts from 5 to 10 points. Lapsed Catholics in the 2000s tended to become Protestants (14%) or express “no religious preference” (10%). This attrition is doubly striking because immigration from Latin America raised the number of Catholics in the U.S. substantially in the same period.

(These data are from the General Social Survey. Why look only at the 30-plus? Because people typically do not settle their religious affiliations until they have settled down, marrying and having a child. The age at which Americans do that has gotten notably older in the last 40 years, so I just focus on respondents past their twenties. By the way, for the latest numbers on Americans claiming no religion, see pdf.)

Among those Catholics who still claim affiliation, religious enthusiasm seems to have dropped sharply. The figure below shows the percentage of self-described Catholics (in purple) and Protestants (in red), aged thirty-plus, who told the GSS that they attended church “nearly every week” or more. The message is quite clear.

chart

Attend

As the Church chooses Benedict’s replacement, it faces many hurdles in America. The sex abuse scandal is one, to be sure. But the assimilation of Catholics to American voluntarism and their estrangement from the Vatican predate those revelations. They have to do with that core contradiction between the millennium-long culture of the Church and the centuries-long culture of America.
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Notes

[1] Dolan, “The Search for an American Catholicism,” Catholic Historical Review, 1996.

[2] Quoted in Tagliabue, “Are American Catholics Roman?” New York Times, June 16, 2002.

[3] Gallup Poll: here.

[4] Melissa Wilde here.

Cross-posted from Claude Fischer’s blog, Made in America: Notes on American life from American history.

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Comments to "Catholic schism":
    • Christian Schmemann

      I converted to Catholicism from Protestantism about 13 years ago. I thought that the Catholic Church would have a stability against the lack of doctrinal clarity and the banality of “contemporary worship.”

      I admire the Popes, especially the three Popes in my life time. However, I regard American Catholicism as the single largest Liturgical Protestant Church in the world.

      I am completely opposed to Protestantism, and I didn’t go to the Catholic Church to continue being Protestant. I am considering defecting to the Orthodox Church.

      [Report abuse]

    • Thomas King

      This column has little to do with what it means to be a Catholic. Fortunately, Pope Benedict seems capable of refocusing public opinion on this question.

      Our European culture, of which our American culture is a subset, is a Roman Catholic culture. American academics have lost sight of that cultural inheritance in the many decades since WWII, with the emergence of a new academic establishment and a focus on political correctness.

      This professor’s focus on poll-taking and controversial questions of church governance do nothing to help the Berkeley students and faculty to understand their own cultural heritage.

      [Report abuse]

    • Mark F.

      Opposition to the death penalty has never been considered a matter of faith and morals, although I personally strongly oppose it. There is also no conflict with Catholic doctrine in supporting civil contracts for gay and lesbian couples, which I do. But not Holy Matromony, which is reserved for heterosexual couples.

      I can’t support abortion, except in extraordinary cases, but I don’t support an absolute legal prohibition against it with harsh penalties either. Female priests are clearly not allowed, nor are priests allowed to get married. However, already married men are not prohibited from the priesthood in some instances. I believe the church should allow it in all circumstances.

      Artificial birth control is an area where I believe the traditional church teaching goes way off the mark with nonsensical reasoning, much like the church wrongly used to sanction slavery.

      Should my Roman Catholic card be taken away?

      [Report abuse]

    • manwyze

      Huge misunderstanding on the part of the poll taker and the pollees. The church is not here to serve them. Their selfish self-centered opinions come from a lack of knowledge about their church. It is them who are to do the serving.

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    • Phil

      To be Roman Catholic is to believe in and follow the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.
      You can call yourself anything you want but if you don’t “BE”lieve the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, you’re not Roman Catholic.

      [Report abuse]

    • Logitech

      People who “believe” in gay marriage, women priests, priests marrying, artificial means of birth control, access to abortion, and the death penalty are not Catholics! Try asking Catholics who practice their faith.

      [Report abuse]

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